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Understanding hormones

Estrogen Replacement Therapy


A female hormone primarily produced by the ovaries, estrogen is often equated with femininity and reproduction. Estrogen is chiefly responsible for menstruation, but it also serves numerous other functions. Any change in estrogen levels can have serious consequences for female health. Keep reading to learn more about estrogen replacement therapy.

What Is Estrogen Replacement Therapy?

Estrogen is prescribed as a pill, vaginal cream, ring,  and patch.Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the introduction of external estrogen into a woman’s body. Though most often recommended for women who have undergone a hysterectomy, it is also beneficial for women who experience estrogen deficiency during menopause. And it can provide relief from symptoms such as headaches, hot flashes, and mood swings. Estrogen is prescribed as a pill, vaginal cream, gel, ring, insert, implant, shot, or patch.

Estrogen is typically combined with progesterone to create a compound hormone replacement therapy. This is known as conjugated estrogen.

Other types of estrogen replacement therapy include natural and synthetic options:

Estrogen replacement therapy includes natural and synthetic options.

  • Natural estrogen replacement therapy. This derives its estrogen from “natural” sources, most frequently from the urine of pregnant mares, which is almost identical in chemical structure to a human female’s estrogen.
  • Synthetic estrogen replacement therapy. This is comprised of estrogen-like substances created in a laboratory.

Side Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy

A landmark study by the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) found that introducing foreign hormones into a woman’s body poses a risk of side effects and health conditions. These vary in duration and intensity, ranging from mild headaches to more severe conditions such as breast cancer and stroke.

Another report, discussed in The New England Journal of Medicine, found that estrogen replacement therapy reduced the chance of heart disease, further claiming that this reduction outweighed the risk of breast cancer.

Estrogen is available in many different forms, including:

Estrogen is available in many different forms, including skin gel.

  • Pill or tablet
  • Nasal spray
  • Skin patch
  • Skin gel
  • Vaginal cream or tablet
  • Vaginal ring

Now that estrogen replacement therapy has been explained, keep reading to understand the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy.

Can HRT Prevent Osteoporosis?

One function of estrogen is to stimulate the production of new bones; when levels of estrogen drop in your body, bone health can be compromised. Although hormone replacement therapy cannot absolutely prevent it, HRT can help to combat osteoporosis by replenishing reduced levels of estrogen. Keep reading to learn (...)


Alternatives to Hormone Replacement Therapy: Three Approaches

It is recommended to begin with the least aggressive approach and move to the next level of treatment only if necessary.

lifestyle changes, alternative remedies, drugs and surgery lifestyle changes, alternative remedies, drugs and surgery lifestyle changes, alternative remedies, drugs and surgery

Learn more: Alternatives to Hormone Replacement Therapy

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